Digital Art, Christiane Paul

pp 7–25


Jeffrey Shaw
The Legible City, 1990

What was Vannevar Bush’s big idea in 1945?

*Vannevar Bush, As We May Think, The Atlantic, 1945, Memex,  a theoretical proto-hypertext device which in turn helped inspire the subsequent invention of hypertext.

What is Cybernetics?

Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as “the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine.”

Ted Nelson, coined the term hypertext a text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references via hyperlinks to other text that the reader can immediately access.

*ARPANET, Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, the technical foundation of the Internet developed by the U.S. Department of Defense.

Xerox PARC, invented laser printing, Ethernet, the modern personal computer and mouse, graphical user interface (GUI) and desktop paradigm, object-oriented programming.

Name some early art movements which were important to the development of new media art?

*Marcel Duchamp
*Rotary Demisphere, 1925?
*L.H.O.O.Q., 1919

László Moholy-Nagy
*Light-Space Modulator, 1933

*Dada, The art of the movement spanned visual, literary, and sound media, including collage, sound poetry, cut-up writing, and sculpture. Dada Poetry

*Fluxus, Conceptual art and the first video art of the 1960s. George Maciunas, Fluxus Manifesto, 1963

*including John Cage, 4’33”, composed in 1952

*including Nam June Paik, Random Access Music: Exposition of Music, 1963, precursor of sampling remix culture

*Michael Noll, Gaussian-Quadratic, 1963, first computer generated drawings

*John Whitney, Catalog, 1961, early computer animation

E.A.T.: Experiments in Art & Technology, 1960-2001 (POST)

*Keith Sonnier and Liza Béar, Send/Receive Satellite Network, 1977, first telepresence art

*Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowit, A Hole in Space LA-NY, 1980

Science Fiction, William Gibson, Neuromancer, 1984, Neal Stephenson, Snow Crash, 1992

NTT, ZKM, Ars  Electronica, EMAF, ISEA, DEAF, Transmedial (POST)

Challenges include presentation, collection and preservation


pp 26–46

Chapter 1: Technology as Tool

Vannevar Bush, As We May Think, The Atlantic, 1945.

What was Walter Benjamin’s big idea in 1946?

All forms are becoming digital, so is the distinction still relevant? Can you give some examples of Technology as Tool other than those in the book?

What was Nicéphore Niépce known for?

Basic characteristic, multiple manipulation and seamless combination of form.

*Charles Csuri, essential characteristic of computer media *Fragmentation Animations, Hummingbird, 1968.

In digital media manipulation is heightened, what is real is open to question

Debt to film and photography, montage and collage *Han Hoch, *OJ SimpsonAI-generated Obama

Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, 1936

Copy verses original

Digital Imaging Photography and print

*Nancy Burson, Morphing, Early Work, Composite Silver Prints, 1982


*Patricia Piccinini, Teenage-MetamorphosisLaboratory Procedures

Paul Smith, *Artists’ Rifles, 2000

Gerald van der Kaap

*Craig Kalpakjian, *Black Box, 2013, *Sony Aibo

Joseph Scheer, Moths, 2001

*Peter Campus, Three Transitions, 1973

*Oliver Wasow, Travel Pictures, 1990

Postinternet Art is a designation used in art criticism coined by Marisa Olson, Gene McHugh, and Artie Vierkant during the mid 2000s in New York at symposia and conferences on the topic of internet art, web art and other forms of new media art. It does not refer to artworks created for or with the Internet. Instead, it denotes impact that the invention of the Internet has had on art and culture, particularly on the work by artists whose creative practice was developed after its widespread adoption in the late 1990s


pp 47–65

Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction

*Camera Obscura

It has frequently been argued that the digital image is not representational because it is encoded and does not record or reproduce physical reality. Debatable on the level of content not production. Does not require physical object to represent.

Andreas Müller Pohle, explain *Digital Scores, 1998-99 digital interpretations of the earliest known photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, View from the Window at Le Gras, *Reproduction, Photograph, 1826.

Andreas Müller Pohle, explain *Blind Genes, 2002, genetic mutations in brail.

Warren Neidich, explain *Conversation Maps, 2002, everyday conversation in sign language.

Carl Fudge, explain *Rhapsody Spray, 2000, Anime character Sailor Chibi Moon screen prints.

*Jochem Hendricks, explain *Eye Drawings, 1992-93

Explain the anxiety over the loss of the hand of the artist.

Implied loss of the of relationship with the ‘mark,’ Luis Buñuel, Un Chien Andalou, 4:31, 1928


Robert Lazzarini, *Payphone, *Skulls, 2000, *Royal-T in LA, Hans Holbein, *The Ambassadors, 1533

*Michael Rees, *Synthetic Cells: Site and Para(Site), 2018

Karin Sanders, Scanned figurative sculpture


pp 66–78

Chapter 2: Digital Technology as a Medium

Name some of the key characteristics of Digital Technology as a Medium

Its aesthetic is interactive, participatory, dynamic, and customizable, to name a few of its key characteristics.

Can you identify these characteristics in your work?

Technologies often develop faster than the rhetoric evaluating them, and we constantly have to develop vocabulary.

*Jim Campbell, *Paramount LED Public Art, John Craig Freeman, Boston, *Paramount Watching, Boston

John F. Simon Jr. *Studio, 5:28–6:02 Influenced by Bauhaus artist *Paul Klee, *Every Icon

Digital practice can be infinitely developed, recycled, and reproduced in various contexts –breed new ideas through recombination.

Lev Manovich, *The Language of New Media, 2001

Interface, the place where independent systems meet and the tools that allow one system to communicate with the other, i.e. humane/machine

Forms of Digital Art


*Rafael Lozano-Hemmer,  *Displaced Emperors, 1997, *Vectorial Elevation >7:12, 1999, *Population Theatre, 2016


pp 79–96

What is the difference between tools, media and form?

Name some distinct forms of digital art.

Erwin Redl, *Fade, 2008.

Asymptote, *Mscape Flux_3, 2013.

Intersection of art and architecture.

Quest to create an intelligent environment.

Mark Goulthorpe, MIT, HypoSurface, 2003.

Masaki Fujihata, *Global Interior, 1996, *Simultaneous Echos, 2009.

The ultimate intelligent environment was envisioned in Stanislaw Lem’s Novel *Solaris, 1968, which was adapted in Andrei Tarkovsky’s, *Stalker, 1979.

PolarCarsten Nicolai and Marko Peljhan, 2000, *polar[m], 2010, related to German club culture.

Helen Thorington, Marek Walczak, Jesse Gilbert, Jonathan Feinberg, Martin Wattenberg, Hal Eager, *Adrift, 1197-2001.

Intersection of art and science.

Both are concerned with the spaces between the actual and the virtual, subjectivity and objectivity, representation and simulation.

Simulation can be defined as the imitative representation of one system or process by another.

KnowBotic Research 10_dencies, 1997-1999.

Perry Hoberman, critical examination of interface, *Cathartic User Interface, 1:20, 1995-2000, Timetable, 1999.

Bill Seaman, Gideon May, The World Generator, 1996-1997.

Jeffrey Shaw, *The Golden Calf, 1994, According to the Bible, the golden calf  was an idol (a cult image) made by the Israelites during Moses’ absence, when he went up to Mount Sinai.


pp 96–116

Film video and animation

Lev Manovich has pointed out that digital media in many ways have redefined the very identity of cinema as we know it. How? By erasing the history of film that is grounded in the concept of recording reality.

Cinema as hybrid form that combines film, digital effects and 3D modeling.

Digital media have redefined the very identity of cinema, Post-truth, Post-cinema, Theoretical photorealism

How does Gene Youngblood define expanded cinema?

Gene Youngblood, *Expanded Cinema, 1970

“When we say expanded cinema we actually mean expanded consciousness. Expanded cinema does not mean computer films, video phosphors, atomic light, or spherical projections. Expanded cinema isn’t a movie at all: like life it’s a process of becoming, man’s ongoing historical drive to manifest his consciousness outside of his mind, in front of his eyes. One no longer can specialize in a single discipline and hope truthfully to express a clear picture of its relationships in the environment. This is especially true in the case of the intermedia network of cinema and television, which now functions as nothing less than the nervous system of mankind.”

Michael Naimark, *Be Now Here, 1995-7

Luc Courchesne, *The Visitor-Living by numbers, 2001

Jennifer and Kevin McCoy, *Every Shot, Every Episode, Starsky and Hutch, 2001, How learned behavior is culturally conditioned.

Jim Campbell, *Hallucination, 1988-90

Wolfgang Staehle, Empire 24/7, 1999-2014, a reference to Andy Warhol, *Empire, 7hr 59min, 16mm b&w, 1964

Wolfgang Staehle, *Live webcam Manhattan Skyline, 2001, ultimate realism in art

Fundamental questions about the nature of live, yet mediated image. Does the live image render previous artforms obsolete? What role do the aesthetics of processing and mediation play in our perception of an artwork?

Interactive cinema

Toni Dove, *Spectropia, 2008

Abandonment of the control over the image sequence implies giving up on cinema as we know it.

Database cinema and supercut

Cory Arcangel, *Arnold Schoenberg, op. 11 – I – Cute Kittens, 2009, *Super Mario Clouds, 2002

Intersection of high art and pop culture.


Mark Amerika, *Filmtext, 2001-2


Pierre Huyghewith Philippe Parreno, *No Ghost Just a Shell 1999-2003, blurring the commercial and artistic aspects of animation. Title is a reference to manga Ghost in the Shell, 1989– , a science fiction story that takes place in a world made borderless by the Net and allows augmented humans to live in virtual environments.

Machinima and other Youtube forms.

Pierre Huyghewith, *Human Mask, 2014, reference to, *Monkey in mask, 2002



pp 111–124

Internet and networked art

From ARPANET in the 1960s to the invention of the World Wide Web in the mid 1990s new forms of artistic expression and experimentation emerged.

*The Thing, Wolfgang Staehle, 1991 Art and cultural theory, first Bulletin Board System (BBS), 1994 World Wide Web (WWW), * > Post

WWW was based on HTTP.

What is HTTP?

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

What is HTML?

  • Hypertext Markup Language, allowed anyone with a network connection to access documents, and anyone with access to a server to make publicly accessible documents, or web pages.

Art on the Internet is in many ways characterized by the tension between the philosophy of the free networked space and its existence a commercial context.

Commercial colonization of the open internet, led to its own demise, known as the Dot Com boom and bust, of the late 1990s.

What was Web 2.0?

  • social networks

Net art has been part of the ecosystem since the start.

Give some examples of net art ‘movements.’

  • textual, audio-visual projects exploring narrative or experimental forms
  • netactivism and interventions
  • performative projects

*Rhizome, online forum for art founded by Mark Tribe ~1996, author, along with Reena Jana, of, *New Media Art, 2009.

Rhizome is now partnered with the *New Museum in NYC.

Early online galleries like Benjamin Weil’s äda ‘web, archived by the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis

Vuk Cosic, coined the term and was a pioneer of ASCII art

What is ASCII?

  • American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

What is ASCII art?

*, mid-1990s, broken HTML, low-tech aesthetic.

Classic net art like, Olia Lialina‘s *My Boyfriend Came Back From the War, 1996, and *Summer, 2013, animated by domain redirection

Heath Bunting, Read Me, 1989.

The web is in constant flux, allowing infinite recycling, reproduction and remix.

What is a web colliders?

  • A project that mixes existing information, making it collide into new forms

Janet Cohen, Keith Frank, and Jon Ippolito, *The Unreliable Archivist, 1998. Questions Authorship and boundaries of the original.

Browser art, I/D/O 4 *WebStalker, 1997, now running on emulator, *image, questions the paradigme of convention.

Maciej Wisniewski, netomat, 1999.

Mark Napier, *RIOT, 1999, combines three most recently visited URLs that Riot users accessed.

Rafaël Rozendaal, Websites, View Source, op art

Community orientation including MUDs Multi User Dungeons, and MOOs Muds Object Oriented navigated as avatars, alternative identities.

Adriene Jenik and Lisa Brenneis, *Desktop Theater, 1997.

It would be a mistake to regard the Internet and networks as a separate territory that has no connection with our physical environment.

Mobile networks including SMS, Secure Management System or text messaging.

Jaap de Jonge, Speakers Corner, 2000-2001, a 15-metre-long text display has been attached to the front of the Kirklees Media Centre in Huddersfield, England that users could text to.

alpha 3.4 GPS tracking triggered web browsing requiring the user to walk from Documenta XI gallery to server.


pp 124–137

Software art

Software is generally defined as formal instructions that can be executed by a computer, although all digital art employs code and algorithms at some level.

Software art, however, usually refers to projects that have been written from scratch by the artist.

Casey Reas:

Sol LeWitt:

Virtual reality

Reality that fully immersed its user in a three-dimensional world generated by a computer and allowed them an interaction with the virtual objects that comprise that world.

Jaron Lanier, coined the term Virtual Reality in 1983:

Virtual reality constitutes a psychology of disincarnation, since it ultimately promises the possibility of leaving the obsolete body behind, and inhabiting the datascape as a cyborg.

Charlotte Davies:

Jeffrey Shaw:

University of Illinois, Chicago *CAVE, Computer Automatic Virtual Environment, SIGGRAPH 1992.

Plato, *Allegory of the Cave, Republic, ~380 BC.

Agnes Hegedüs: *Memory Theater VR, >1:00, 1997.

Method of Loci (loci being Latin for “places”), also known as the memory journey, memory palace, or mind palace technique is a method of memory enhancement which uses visualizations with the use of spatial memory, familiar information about one’s environment, to quickly and efficiently recall information. This method is a mnemonic device adopted in ancient Roman and Greek rhetorical treatises and memory competitions.

Giulio Camillo Italian philosopher who in the sixteenth century convinced Francis I of France to fund the construction of a *Theater of Memory that would essentially be a physical representation of the sort of mental memory palaces that had been crucial to orators, philosophers, and others in the days before printing.

Tamiko Thiel:

Peter d’Agostino:

Sound and music

John Klima: participatory, networked creation of soundscapes.

Golan Levin, live mediated performance, Audiovisual Environment Suite:

Max Neuhaus:

Chris Chafe and Greg Niemeyer: Ping, 2001.

Toshio Iwai, Piano – as image media, 1995.


Spring Semester

pp 139–153

What are the three central concepts of any organism or system defined in 1948 by Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine?

Please explain Thomas Ray’s Project Tierra.


Overview of the development of computing and network technology and how it intersected with avant-garde art

Chapter 1: Technology as Tool, and Chapter 2: Digital Technology as a Medium

Forms of Digital Art such as Installation; Film video and animation; Internet and networked art; Software art; Virtual reality; Sound and music

Chapter 3: Themes in Digital Art

Medium-specific: artificial life and intelligence; telepresence and telerobotics: database aesthetics and data visualization; (net) activism and tactical media; gaming and narrative environments; the redefinition of public space through locative media and public interactives; augmented and mixed reality; and social media and the Web 2.0 era.

Artificial life

Chapter begins with a quote by Donna Haraway, “Our machines are disturbingly lively, and we ourselves frighteningly inert.” from the book “Simians, Cyborgs, and Women,”  Chapter 8 “A Cyborg Manifesto,” 1984, uses the metaphor of a cyborg to urge feminists to move beyond the limitations of traditional gender, feminism, and politics (POST)

High-tech culture provides a challenge to these antagonistic dualisms

Haraway suggests an alliance between cybernetic and feminism to counter binary oppression

*Langton’s Ant, Chris Langton, 1986, * Langton’s Ant Colonies

Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine,”  Norbert Wiener, 1948. Originator of cybernetics, MIT. Three central concepts of any organism or system: communication, control, feedback

Wiener postulated that the guiding principle behind life and organization is information.

Zoologist, Richard Dawkins, Selfish Gene, genetic populations, rather than individuals, will tend towards an evolutionarily stable strategy. In the book, Dawkins, coined the term ‘memes’ concept of memetics, social and cultural evolution analogous to genes.

Karl Sims, * Evolved Virtual Creatures, Evolution Simulation, 1994, Galapagos, 1997

Christa Sommerer a Laurent Mignonneau, A-Volve, >2:01, 1994-97

Ian Cheng: * Liars – ‘Brats’, 2015, * Ian Cheng: Behavior as input for generative works, 2:22><3:16, 2016 (POST)

Thomas Ray, * Project Tierra, 1:12><2:20, suggests a network-wide biodiversity reserve for evolution of code by mutation (POST)

Rebecca Allen, Emergence: The Bush Soul, 1998, new media artists should always embrace the digital aesthetic, Kraftwerk – Music Non Stop, 1986

Ken Rinaldo, * Autopoiesis <0:54, 2000

The term evolution has itself undergone an evolution, and has become a process that can be influenced With the help of technology.

Artificial intelligence

Alan Turing, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and theoretical biologist, invented turing machine (prototype computer) which cracked the German Enigma machine at Bletchley Park, Britain’s codebreaking centre during WWII

Turing Test, a test of a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human, from Computing Machinery and Intelligence, 1950, Imitation Game

Ken Feingold, * If/Then, 2001

David Rokeby, * Giver of Names <3:08, 1991

Human-machine communication, the Internet of things, has become part of our lives in the form of bots, or intelligent agent software programs that automatically filter and customize information for us and offer us products and information on the basis of our perceived likes and dislikes.

Alexa and Google conversation

Bots are either hailed as personal assistance that make us smarter or despised as the invaders who destroy our privacy and imagination – depending on what form the take.

“The idea of intelligent agents is both wrong and evil,” Jaron Lanier, Agents of Alienation, 1995, the use of intelligent agents will devalue human intelligence and creativity and diminish the role of conscious experience.

Noah Wardrip-Fruin with Adam Chapman, Brion Moss, Duane Whitehurst, Impermanence Agents, 1998-2003, author of The New Media Reader, with Nick Montfort, MIT Press.

Robert Nideffer PROXY, 2001

Lynn Hershman Leeson, * Agent Ruby, 2002, commissioned by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, with Indi Science Fiction Film Teknolust  (POST)


pp 153–164

What does the term ‘telematics’ mean?

Explain the concept of Memento Mori.

Telepresence and telerobotics

“The concept of telepresence is obviously not only connected to digital technologies butInherent to any form of telecommunications – communication over the distance.” Christiane Paul

László Moholy-Nagy
EM 2 (Telephone Picture), 1923

Simon Nora and Alain Minc, coined the term ‘telematics’ for the use of computers and telecommunications, The Computerization of Society, 1978

Roy Ascott, *Telenoia, 1992, exploring the idea of global consciousness

Steve Dietz, * Telematic Connection: The Virtual eMbrace, Walker Art Center, 2001
“Telematic Connections is not fundamentally about technology. Nor is it an attempt to define a new genre of art practice. It is about what MIT computer scientist Michael Dertouzos calls “the forces of the cave”—some of the eternal human traits that have never left us, including the desire to connect, even to merge with another—but in today’s world of ubiquitous computing and global networking.” Steve Dietz 2001

“While telepresence is and old concept, digital technologies have allowed for unprecedented possibilities of ‘being present,’ in various locations at the same time. The Internet can be considered as one huge telepresence environment that allows us to be present all over the world…” Christiane Paul

Ken Goldberg
Telegarden, 0:45 >< 2:07, 1995-2004
Memento Mori, 15:04><24:38, 1997
* Mori, 2:24><1:57, 1999

Eduardo Kac: Transgenic Artist
*Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 12:17><16:01, 1994
*Teleporting an Unknown State, 16:36><19:10, 1994-1996
*Rara Avis, 20:00><21:28, 1996
*GFP Bunny, 39:44><40:16, News 41:35><42:51, 2000
*Transgenic Art Manifesto

Eric Paulos and John Canny, *PRoP, 0:10<>0:43, 1997
William Gibson, *The Peripheral, 2014

Nina Sobell and Emily Hartzell, pioneers of performance on the Web
*Park Bench, 1994

Angel Nevarez and Alex Rivera, *Low Drone, 2005

Adrianne Wortzel
Camouflage Town, 2001

Lynn Hershman Leeson
*Website, *Tillie, The Telerobotic Doll, 1995-1998

Jeff Gompertz and Prema Murthy, Capsule Hotel, 2001

Steve Mann, Wearable Wireless Webcam, 1980-present.
*Steve Mann: The Godfather of Wearable Tech, 2:45<>4:55-6:17

“While telepresence and telematics establish a phenomenon of global connectedness and the ‘translocal’, they also raise serious issues about the merging of private and public spheres and the way in which we construct our identity.” Christiane Paul


pp 164–174

What is the meaning of the term Posthuman?

What does memory palace refer to?

Body and identity

Sherry Turkle, MIT Initiative on Technology and Self
*Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet, 2011, a book not about computers, but about people and how computers are causing us to reevaluate our identities in the age of the Internet. We are using life on the screen to engage in new ways of thinking about evolution, relationships, politics, sex, and the self. What is emerging, Turkle says, is a new sense of identity—as decentered and multiple.

*Self versus avatar.
*Identity formation is a fundamental tenet of electracy theory.
*Self is a reference by a subject to the same subject, essential qualities that constitute a person’s uniqueness or essential being, the agent responsible for an individual’s thoughts and actions, in modern psychology forms the distinction between the self as I, the subjective knower, and the self as Me, the subject that is known.
*Identity, in a preliterate culture, is a matter of performing (with other group members) the roles provided by tradition; to be a self is not to stand out but to successfully participate in the communal reenactment of cultural history.
*Our identities in games, virtual worlds, social networking sites, and related media exist in an ecology of behavior, artifacts, attitudes, software and hardware infrastructure, activities (like gaming), institutional values and biases, personal values and biases, systems of classification, and cognitive processing (the imagination).

Allucquere Rosanne Stone, *The War of Desire, 1995
*Face-to-face meetings, and even telephone conversations, involuntarily reveal crucial aspects of identity such as gender, age, and race. However, these bits of identity are completely masked by computer-mediated communications; all that is revealed is what we choose to reveal—and then only if we choose to tell the truth. The rise of computer-mediated communications is giving people the means to try on alternative personae—in a sense, to reinvent themselves—which, as Stone compellingly argues, has both positive and potentially destructive implications.

Tina LaPorta, Re:mote_corp@REALities, 2001

“The underlying question is to what extent are we already experiencing a human-machine symbiosis that has cyborgs, technologically enhanced and extended bodies.” CP

In her book How We Became Posthuman, 1999, Katherine Hayles states “Increasingly the question is not whether we will become posthuman, for posthumanity is already here. Rather the question is what kind of post human will be.

*Exoskeleton, 0:45><1:23, 1999
*Ping Body, 0:28><1:03, 1996
*Ear on Arm, CNN, 1996-2006-

“When Galileo’s Telescopic eye reach the moon in 1609, the telescope not only extended the range of human vision; to some extent, it detached the eye from the physical environment of their perceptual body. In virtual reality and online environments, this detachment or flight from the body has been taken to new levels.”

Victoria Vesna.
*Bodies Inc, 1995

Georgia Tech Professor Fox Harrell, Making Avatars That Aren’t White Dudes is Hard, (POST)

Monika Fleischmann, Wolfgang Strauss and Christian-A Bohn
*Liquid Views, 1993, The ‘self-reflection’ encountered in avatars connects to the inversion of reality and dichotomy of identity and difference, presence, and absence that was epitomized in the classical myth of Narcissus, who fell in love with his own reflection in a pool of water.

Shu Lea Cheang
*BRANDONGuggenheim Museum, 1998, derives its title from Brandon/Teena Brandon of Nebraska, USA, agender-crossing individual who was raped and murdered in 1993 after his female anatomy was revealed.

“The tension between embodiment/disembodiment can not be constructed as a choice of either/or but rather has to be understood as a reality of both/and.

Eduardo Kac
*Time Capsule, 24:20><31:21, 1997

Stahl Stenslie
*Tactile Technologies, 1994
*Erotogod, 2003

Kazuhiko Hachiya.
*Inter Discommunications Machine, 1993, confusing the boundary between you and me, reminiscent of William Gibson’s Neuromancer simstim star

Scott Snibbe
*Boundary Functions, 1998

Anil Seth.
*Your brain hallucinates your conscious reality, 0:00><2:29, 2017 (POST)

Eva and Franco Mattes aka
CuSeeMe and Chatroulette, *No Fun, 2010




pp 174–189

Database aesthetics and data visualization

“In the digital age, the concept of disembodiment does not only apply to our physical body but also to the notion of the object and materiality in general. Information in itself to a large extent seems to have lost its ‘body’, becoming an abstract ‘quality’ that can make a fluid transition between different states of materiality.” CP

“The meaningfulness of data relies on possibilities of filtering the information and creating some form of organizing structure or map.” CP

“Every ‘container’ of information be in the library, a building, or a city – essentially constitutes a data space and information architecture of its own.” CP

Martin Wattenberg and Marek Walczak, * Apartment, 0:00><1:54, 2001

From information architecture, memory theater and palace

*Benjamin Fry
Ben FryPhD from the Aesthetics + Computation Group at the MIT Media Lab.
developed Processing with Casey Reas of UCLA (POST) 0:00><2:39.
*Valence, Information Visualisation 2002

*Processing tutorial: Overview of data visualization, 0:00><5:00.

W. Bradford Paley
*TextArc, 2001
*Bradford Paley, Martin Wattenberg, & Fernanda Viegas | Talks at Google, 38:07 (POST)

Archives and databases have become an essential form of cultural organization and memory.

George Legrady, An Annotated History of the Cold War, 1994, Slipper Traces, 1997, Pockets Full of Memories, 2001

Alex Galloway and Radical Software Group, *Carnivore, 2001_Present, Carnivore is inspired by the software DCS 1000 nickname carnivore, which is used by the FBI to perform electronic wiretaps and search for certain “suspicious” keywords. This electronic wiretapping is done by means of so-called packet sniffing programs that monitor network traffic and ‘eavesdrop’ information exchanged. Tony Hawk’s Pro Skater 4

Big data analytics

? Lisa Jevbratt and C5, *1:1, 1999-2001, *interface : every, IP to RGB

? Nancy Patterson, *Stock Market Skirt, 1998

John Klima, *ecosystem, 2000, EARTH, 2001

Lynn Hershman, *Synthia, 11:36>< 12:56, 2001

ART + COM, *TerraVision, 0:00><1:16, 1994, Ride and Byte, 1998

Warren Sack, Conversation Map, since 2001

Judith Donath and Fernanda Viégas, Chat Circles

Lev Manovich, Nadav Hochmann and Jay Chow, The Aggregate Eye, 19:28, 2013, * Wallace Gallery, 2013

Fernanda Viégas and Martin Wattenberg, Many Eyes, 2007



pp 189–196

Beyond the book, Narrative environments

“While the world wide web may be the most advance actualization of Ted Nelson’s dream of hypermedia so far, his concepts of hypertext became the field of experimentation before there was a World Wide Web, particularly in the writing community.” CP

“As electronically linked, nonlinear text, hypertext both embodies and tests aspects of postmodern critical theory, particularly those concerning textuality, narrative, and the roles or functions of reader and writer.” CP

“The author creates a map of the text with alternate paths and various options; Readers assemble the story by choosing their routes through it (or even rewriting the text) and thus create an individual version of it.” CP

The author and reader become collaborators.

“Hypermedia application strive to mimic the brain’s ability to make associative references and use these references in order to access information.” CP

Masaki Fujihata, *Beyond Pages, 1995

Camille Utterback and Romy Achituv
*Text Rain, 1999
*Entangled, Emerson Urban Arts, 2017

John Maeda, former President of the Rhode Island School of Design
*Tap Type Write, 1998, *TED, 7:00><9:08

David Small and Tom White
*Stream of Consciousness: An Interactive Poetic Garden, 0:00><1:01 1997-1998

Mark Amerika
* Grammatron, 1997, aspires to be an electronic book of origins

Graham Harwood, Rehearsal of Memory, 1996

Jim Gasperini and Tennessee Rice Dixon, ScruTiny in the Great Round, 1996

Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Josh Carol, Robert Coover, Andrew McCain, ann Ben Sacha ‘Sascha’ Shine, * Screen, 2002– Present



pp 196–203


“Game paradigms range from navigation and simulation to link narratives, the creation of 3D worlds and multiuser environments.”CP

“Games come in a variety of genres such as strategic ones, shooters, God games and action/adventure.”CP

“One essential characteristic that many of these games share with interactive, digital art is they are collaborative and participatory: players users often have to collaborate with each other in order to win the game.”CP

Skins, and interchangeable look and feel of the character.

Patches, self programmed extensions that actually modify the behavior of game world or character.

Role-playing is a crucial element that surfaces in both computer games and digital art.

First and third person perspective, or points of view.

Games and digital are both share a connection to the military industrial complex.

Natalie Bookchin
* The Intruder, 1999, <random> Players progressive the 10 different arcade game interfaces, which they have to play in order to win a piece of the narrative, Based on Jorge Luis Borges short story title The Intruder.
Metapet, 2002, a resource management game based on the premise that biotech innovation and corporate creativity gave birth to a genetically engineered worker, a new class of  virtual pet that the replaces the all too human worker.

Cory Arcangel
Landscape Study , 2002
Super Mario Clouds, 2002-Present (ICA)

Olia Lialina
My Boyfriend Came Back From the War, 1996, (ICA)

Lynn Hershman Leeson
Tillie, The Telerobotic Doll, 1995-199, (ICA), (ICA)
SOD, 1999, <random> Deconstructs Castle Wolfenstein

Feng Mengbo
Q4U, 2002, 0:00><1:30, hack of Quake III Arena, with artist’s avatar

Anne-Marie Schleiner, Joan Leandre, and Brody Condon
Velvet-Strike, 2006-11, 1:30><2:45, Counter Strike patch

Joseph de Lappe
* dead-in-iraq, 2006-11, 1:07><3:30,  America’s Army online protest/memorial



pp 204–223

pp 223–235

pp 235–247

pp 247–259

Tactical media, activism, and hacktivism

Surveillance Camera Players

* Institute for Applied Autonomy, iSee, nd

* Josh On, They Rule, 2001

Antonio Muntadas, The File Room, 1994

Natalie Jeremijenko, Sniffer, 2002

Electronic Disturbance Theatre, electronic civil disobedience, FloodNet, The Hacktivists Digital Zapatismo

etoy, Toywar, 1999

®TMark, Yes Men

Vuk Cosic, Documenta X, nd

Mongrel, Uncomfortable Proximity, 2001 , life_sharing, 2001

Open source and copyleft


Technologies of the future

Eduardo Kac, Genesis, 1999

Critical Art Ensemble, GenTerra, nd

Natalie Jeremijenko, OneTree, 2000

Redefining public space: Locative media and public interactives

Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution, 2002

Julian Bleecker, Scott Paterson and Marina Zurkow, PDPal, 2003

Julian Bleecker, WiFiArtCache, 2003

Fluxus, Situationist International, Psychogeography

Q.S. Serafin and Lars Spuybroek, D-tower, 1998-2004, NOX

Teri Rueb, * Core Sample, 2007

C5 Landscape Initiative, 2001


Usman Haque, Sky Ear, 2004

Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Amodal Suspension, 2003

Giselle Beiguelman, Sometimes Always, Sometime Never, 2005

Jenny Marketou, Flying Spy Potatoes, 2005, 99 Red Balloons, 2005

Michelle Teran, Life: A User’s Manual, 2003

Krzysztof Wodiczko, Homeless Vehicles, 1988-9,

Ricardo Miranda Zúñiga, Vagamundo, 2002, The Public Broadcast Cart, 2003-6

Marko Peljhan, Makrolab, 1994-present

Bureau of Inverse Technology, The Antiterror Line, 2003-4

Konrad Becker and Public Netbase with Pact System, System-77 CCR, 2004

Preemptive Media,Beatriz da Costa, Heidi Kumao, Jamie Schulte, and Brooke Singer ** Zapped to 8:25, 2005

Eric Paulos with Urban Atmospheres, Participatory Urbanism, 2006

Gabriel Zea, Andres Burbano, Camilo Martinez, and Alejandro Duque, BereBere, 2007

Beatriz da Costa with Cina Hazegh and Kevin Ponto, * PigeonBlog, Test Flight, ZERO1, 2006

Camille Utterback, ** Abundance, ZERO1, 2007

Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Voice Tunnel, 2013

Marie Sester, * ACCESS, 2003

Aram Bartholl, * Dead Drops, 2010-Present

Augmenting the real: Augmented reality and mixed reality

John Craig Freeman, Orators, Rostrums, and Propaganda Stands, 2012

John Craig Freeman and Will Pappenheimer, SFMOMA AR, 2013

Manifest.AR, Mark Skwarek, John Craig Freeman,Will Pappenheimer,Tamiko Thiel and Sander Veenhof, We Are in MoMA, 2010

John Craig Freeman, Border Memorial: Frontera de los Muertos, 2012-Present

Blast Theory, * Can You See Me Now?, 2001-Present

Social media and the Web 2.0 era

Shift of emphasis from linking and exchange of media files to networking of people

Golan Levin with Kamal Nigam and Jonathan Feinberg, The Dumpster, 2006

Antonio Muntadas, On Translation: Social Networks, ZERO1 and CADRE 2006

Warren Sack, Agnostics: A Language Game, 2005

Annina Rüst, Sinister Social Network, 2006, * A Piece of the Pie Chart, 2015

Angie Waller, 2007

Paolo Cirio and Alessandro Ludovico, * Face to Facebook, 2011, SBS World News Australia

Ben Grosser, Facebook Demetricator, 2012-Present

Joe Hamilton, Hyper Geography, 2012-Present

Scott Snibbe, Philip Glass REWORK_APP, 2012

Donato Mancini and Jeremy Owen Turner with Patrick ‘Flick’ Harrison, AVATARA, 2003

Eva and Franco Mattes (aka, 13 Most Beautiful Avatars, 2006

John Craig Freeman and Will Pappenheimer, Virta-Flaneurazine, 2007

G+S (Simon Goldin and Jakob Senneby) Objects of Virtual Desire, 2005

eTeam (Hajoe Moderegger and Franziska Lamprecht, Secondlife Dumpster, 2007

Second Front, Spawn of the Surreal, 2007, Border Patrol with John Craig Freeman, 2007