* The Legible City, 1990
What was Vannevar Bush’s big idea in 1945?
*Vannevar Bush, As We May Think, The Atlantic, 1945, Memex, a theoretical proto-hypertext device which in turn helped inspire the subsequent invention of hypertext.
What is Cybernetics?
Xerox PARC, invented laser printing, Ethernet, the modern personal computer and mouse, graphical user interface (GUI) and desktop paradigm, object-oriented programming.
Name some early art movements which were important to the development of new media art?
*Light-Space Modulator, 1933
*including John Cage, 4’33”, composed in 1952
*including Nam June Paik, Random Access Music: Exposition of Music, 1963, precursor of sampling remix culture
*Michael Noll, Gaussian-Quadratic, 1963, first computer generated drawings
*John Whitney, Catalog, 1961, early computer animation
E.A.T.: Experiments in Art & Technology, 1960-2001 (POST)
*Keith Sonnier and Liza Béar, Send/Receive Satellite Network, 1977, first telepresence art
*Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowit, A Hole in Space LA-NY, 1980
Challenges include presentation, collection and preservation
Chapter 1: Technology as Tool
Vannevar Bush, As We May Think, The Atlantic, 1945.
What was Walter Benjamin’s big idea in 1946?
All forms are becoming digital, so is the distinction still relevant? Can you give some examples of Technology as Tool other than those in the book?
What was Nicéphore Niépce known for?
Basic characteristic, multiple manipulation and seamless combination of form.
In digital media manipulation is heightened, what is real is open to question
Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, 1936
Copy verses original
Digital Imaging Photography and print
*Nancy Burson, Morphing, Early Work, Composite Silver Prints, 1982
Paul Smith, *Artists’ Rifles, 2000
Joseph Scheer, Moths, 2001
*Peter Campus, Three Transitions, 1973
*Oliver Wasow, Travel Pictures, 1990
Postinternet Art is a designation used in art criticism coined by Marisa Olson, Gene McHugh, and Artie Vierkant during the mid 2000s in New York at symposia and conferences on the topic of internet art, web art and other forms of new media art. It does not refer to artworks created for or with the Internet. Instead, it denotes impact that the invention of the Internet has had on art and culture, particularly on the work by artists whose creative practice was developed after its widespread adoption in the late 1990s
Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
???Digital image is not representational
Andreas Müller Pohle, Blind Genes, 2002
???Warren Neidich, *Conversation Maps, 2002
???Carl Fudge, Rhapsody Spray, 2000
*Jochem Hendricks, *Eye Drawings, 1992-93
Explain the anxiety over the loss of the hand of the artist.
Implied loss of the of relationship with the ‘mark,’ Luis Buñuel, Un Chien Andalou, 4:31, 1928
Karin Sanders, Scanned figurative sculpture
Chapter 2: Digital Technology as a Medium
Name some of the key characteristics of Digital Technology as a Medium
Can you identify these characteristics in your work?
Its aesthetic is interactive, participatory, dynamic, and customizable, to name a few of its key characteristics.
Technologies often develop faster than the rhetoric evaluating them, and we constantly have to develop vocabulary.
Digital practice can be infinitely developed, recycled, and reproduced in various contexts –breed new ideas through recombination.
Lev Manovich, The Language of New Media, 2001
Interface, the place where independent systems meet and the tools that allow one system to communicate with the other, i.e. humane/machine
Forms of Digital Art
What is the difference between tools, media and form?
Name some distinct forms of digital art.
*Erwin Redl, Fade, 2008
*Asymptote, Mscape Flux_3, 2013
Intersection of art and archetecture
Quest to create an intelligent environment
Helen Thorington, Marek Walczak, Jesse Gilbert, Jonathan Feinberg, Martin Wattenberg, Hal Eager, *Adrift, 1197-2001
Intersection of art and science
Both are concerned with the spaces between the actual and the virtual, subjectivity and objectivity, representation and simulation
Simulation can be defined as the imitative representation of one system or process by another
KnowBotic Research 10_dencies, 1997-1999
Bill Seaman, Gideon May, The World Generator, 1996-1997
Jeffrey Shaw, *The Golden Calf, 1994, According to the Bible, the golden calf was an idol (a cult image) made by the Israelites during Moses’ absence, when he went up to Mount Sinai
Lev Manovich has pointed out that digital media in many ways have redefined the very identity of cinema as we know it. How?
How does Gene Youngblood define expanded cinema?
Film video and animation
Digital media have redefined the very identity of cinema, Post-truth, Post-cinema, Theoretical photorealism
Gene Youngblood, Expanded Cinema, 1970
“When we say expanded cinema we actually mean expanded consciousness. Expanded cinema does not mean computer films, video phosphors, atomic light, or spherical projections. Expanded cinema isn’t a movie at all: like life it’s a process of becoming, man’s ongoing historical drive to manifest his consciousness outside of his mind, in front of his eyes. One no longer can specialize in a single discipline and hope truthfully to express a clear picture of its relationships in the environment. This is especially true in the case of the intermedia network of cinema and television, which now functions as nothing less than the nervous system of mankind.”
Cinema as hybrid form that combines film, digital effects and 3D modeling, erasing the history of film as recording reality
Michael Naimark, *Be Now Here, 1995-7
Luc Courchesne, *The Visitor-Living by numbers, 2001
Jennifer and Kevin McCoy, *Every Shot, Every Episode, Starsky and Hutch, 2001, How learned behavior is culturally conditioned.
Jim Campbell, *Hallucination, 1988-90
Wolfgang Staehle, *Live webcam Manhattan Skyline, 2001, ultimate realism in art
Fundamental questions about the nature of live, yet mediated image. Does the live image render previous artforms obsolete? What role do the aesthetics of processing and mediation play in our perception of an artwork?
Toni Dove, *Spectropia, 2008
Abandonment of the control over the image sequence implies giving up on cinema as we know it.
Database cinema and supercut
Intersection of high art and pop culture.
Mark Amerika, *Filmtext, 2001-2
Pierre Huyghewith Philippe Parreno, *No Ghost Just a Shell 1999-2003, blurring the commercial and artistic aspects of animation. Title is a reference to manga Ghost in the Shell, 1989– , a science fiction story that takes place in a world made borderless by the Net and allows augmented humans to live in virtual environments.
Machinima and other Youtube forms.
Internet and networked art
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
Dot Com boom and bust, late 1990s to Web 2.0
Art on the Internet is in many ways characterized by the tension between the philosophy of the free networked space and its existence a commercial context
Rhizome founded by Mark Tribe ~1996, now partnered with the New Museum in NYC, New Media Art, 2009
Angel Nevarez and Alex Rivera, Low Drone, 2005
äda ‘web, archived by the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis
Heath Bunting, _readme
Web Colliders and Remix
Janet Cohen, Keith Frank, and Jon Ippolito, The Unreliable Archivist, 1998
Maciej Wisniewski, netomat, 1999
Rafaël Rozendaal, Websites, View Source
Adriene Jenik and Lisa Brenneis, Desktop Theater, 1997
Jaap de Jonge, Speakers Corner, 2000-2001
Software is generally defined as formal instructions that can be executed by a computer.
Sol LeWitt: A Wall Drawing Retrospective, Mass MoCA
Reality that fully immersed its user in a three-dimensional world generated by a computer and allowed them an interaction with the virtual objects that comprise that world.
Charlotte Davies, Osmose, 1995
Jeffrey Shaw, EVE (Extended Virtual Environment), 1995
University of Illinois, Chicago CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment
Plato, Allegory of the Cave, Republic, ~380 BC
Agnes Hegedüs: Memory Theater VR, 1997
Giulio Camillo, Theater of Memory,
Peter d’Agostino, VR/RV, 1992
Sound and music
What are the three central concepts of any organism or system defined in 1948 by Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine?
Please explain Thomas Ray’s Project Tierra.
Overview of the development of computing and network technology and how it intersected with avant-garde art
Chapter 1: Technology as Tool, and Chapter 2: Digital Technology as a Medium
Forms of Digital Art such as Installation; Film video and animation; Internet and networked art; Software art; Virtual reality; Sound and music
Chapter 3: Themes in Digital Art
Medium-specific: artificial life and intelligence; telepresence and telerobotics: database aesthetics and data visualization; (net) activism and tactical media; gaming and narrative environments; the redefinition of public space through locative media and public interactives; augmented and mixed reality; and social media and the Web 2.0 era.
Chapter begins with a quote by Donna Haraway, “Our machines are disturbingly lively, and we ourselves frighteningly inert.” from the book “Simians, Cyborgs, and Women,” Chapter 8 “A Cyborg Manifesto,” 1984, uses the metaphor of a cyborg to urge feminists to move beyond the limitations of traditional gender, feminism, and politics (POST)
High-tech culture provides a challenge to these antagonistic dualisms
Haraway suggests an alliance between cybernetic and feminism to counter binary oppression
“Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine,” Norbert Wiener, 1948. Originator of cybernetics, MIT. Three central concepts of any organism or system: communication, control, feedback
Wiener postulated that the guiding principle behind life and organization is information.
Zoologist, Richard Dawkins, Selfish Gene, genetic populations, rather than individuals, will tend towards an evolutionarily stable strategy. In the book, Dawkins, coined the term ‘memes’ concept of memetics, social and cultural evolution analogous to genes.
Christa Sommerer a Laurent Mignonneau, A-Volve, >2:01, 1994-97
The term evolution has itself undergone an evolution, and has become a process that can be influenced With the help of technology.
Alan Turing, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and theoretical biologist, invented turing machine (prototype computer) which cracked the German Enigma machine at Bletchley Park, Britain’s codebreaking centre during WWII
Ken Feingold, * If/Then, 2001
David Rokeby, * Giver of Names <3:08, 1991
Human-machine communication, the Internet of things, has become part of our lives in the form of bots, or intelligent agent software programs that automatically filter and customize information for us and offer us products and information on the basis of our perceived likes and dislikes.
Bots are either hailed as personal assistance that make us smarter or despised as the invaders who destroy our privacy and imagination – depending on what form the take.
“The idea of intelligent agents is both wrong and evil,” Jaron Lanier, Agents of Alienation, 1995, the use of intelligent agents will devalue human intelligence and creativity and diminish the role of conscious experience.
Robert Nideffer PROXY, 2001
What does the term ‘telematics’ mean?
Explain the concept of Memento Mori.
Telepresence and telerobotics
“The concept of telepresence is obviously not only connected to digital technologies butInherent to any form of telecommunications – communication over the distance.” Christiane Paul
* EM 2 (Telephone Picture), 1923
Simon Nora and Alain Minc, coined the term ‘telematics’ for the use of computers and telecommunications, The Computerization of Society, 1978
Roy Ascott, *Telenoia, 1992, exploring the idea of global consciousness
Steve Dietz, * Telematic Connection: The Virtual eMbrace, Walker Art Center, 2001
“Telematic Connections is not fundamentally about technology. Nor is it an attempt to define a new genre of art practice. It is about what MIT computer scientist Michael Dertouzos calls “the forces of the cave”—some of the eternal human traits that have never left us, including the desire to connect, even to merge with another—but in today’s world of ubiquitous computing and global networking.” Steve Dietz 2001
“While telepresence is and old concept, digital technologies have allowed for unprecedented possibilities of ‘being present,’ in various locations at the same time. The Internet can be considered as one huge telepresence environment that allows us to be present all over the world…” Christiane Paul
Eduardo Kac: Transgenic Artist
*Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 12:17><16:01, 1994
*Teleporting an Unknown State, 16:36><19:10, 1994-1996
*Rara Avis, 20:00><21:28, 1996
*GFP Bunny, 39:44><40:16, News 41:35><42:51, 2000
*Transgenic Art Manifesto
Nina Sobell and Emily Hartzell, pioneers of performance on the Web
*Park Bench, 1994
Camouflage Town, 2001
Jeff Gompertz and Prema Murthy, Capsule Hotel, 2001
“While telepresence and telematics establish a phenomenon of global connectedness and the ‘translocal’, they also raise serious issues about the merging of private and public spheres and the way in which we construct our identity.” Christiane Paul
What is the meaning of the term Posthuman?
What does memory palace refer to?
Body and identity
Sherry Turkle, MIT Initiative on Technology and Self
*Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet, 2011, a book not about computers, but about people and how computers are causing us to reevaluate our identities in the age of the Internet. We are using life on the screen to engage in new ways of thinking about evolution, relationships, politics, sex, and the self. What is emerging, Turkle says, is a new sense of identity—as decentered and multiple.
*Self versus avatar.
*Identity formation is a fundamental tenet of electracy theory.
*Self is a reference by a subject to the same subject, essential qualities that constitute a person’s uniqueness or essential being, the agent responsible for an individual’s thoughts and actions, in modern psychology forms the distinction between the self as I, the subjective knower, and the self as Me, the subject that is known.
*Identity, in a preliterate culture, is a matter of performing (with other group members) the roles provided by tradition; to be a self is not to stand out but to successfully participate in the communal reenactment of cultural history.
*Our identities in games, virtual worlds, social networking sites, and related media exist in an ecology of behavior, artifacts, attitudes, software and hardware infrastructure, activities (like gaming), institutional values and biases, personal values and biases, systems of classification, and cognitive processing (the imagination).
Allucquere Rosanne Stone, *The War of Desire, 1995
*Face-to-face meetings, and even telephone conversations, involuntarily reveal crucial aspects of identity such as gender, age, and race. However, these bits of identity are completely masked by computer-mediated communications; all that is revealed is what we choose to reveal—and then only if we choose to tell the truth. The rise of computer-mediated communications is giving people the means to try on alternative personae—in a sense, to reinvent themselves—which, as Stone compellingly argues, has both positive and potentially destructive implications.
Tina LaPorta, Re:mote_corp@REALities, 2001
“The underlying question is to what extent are we already experiencing a human-machine symbiosis that has cyborgs, technologically enhanced and extended bodies.” CP
In her book How We Became Posthuman, 1999, Katherine Hayles states “Increasingly the question is not whether we will become posthuman, for posthumanity is already here. Rather the question is what kind of post human will be.
“When Galileo’s Telescopic eye reach the moon in 1609, the telescope not only extended the range of human vision; to some extent, it detached the eye from the physical environment of their perceptual body. In virtual reality and online environments, this detachment or flight from the body has been taken to new levels.”
*Bodies Inc, 1995
Monika Fleischmann, Wolfgang Strauss and Christian-A Bohn
*Liquid Views, 1993, The ‘self-reflection’ encountered in avatars connects to the inversion of reality and dichotomy of identity and difference, presence, and absence that was epitomized in the classical myth of Narcissus, who fell in love with his own reflection in a pool of water.
Shu Lea Cheang
*BRANDON, Guggenheim Museum, 1998, derives its title from Brandon/Teena Brandon of Nebraska, USA, agender-crossing individual who was raped and murdered in 1993 after his female anatomy was revealed.
“The tension between embodiment/disembodiment can not be constructed as a choice of either/or but rather has to be understood as a reality of both/and.
*Time Capsule, 24:20><31:21, 1997
*Inter Discommunications Machine, 1993, confusing the boundary between you and me, reminiscent of William Gibson’s Neuromancer simstim star
*Boundary Functions, 1998
Database aesthetics and data visualization
“In the digital age, the concept of disembodiment does not only apply to our physical body but also to the notion of the object and materiality in general. Information in itself to a large extent seems to have lost its ‘body’, becoming an abstract ‘quality’ that can make a fluid transition between different states of materiality.” CP
“The meaningfulness of data relies on possibilities of filtering the information and creating some form of organizing structure or map.” CP
“Every ‘container’ of information be in the library, a building, or a city – essentially constitutes a data space and information architecture of its own.” CP
Martin Wattenberg and Marek Walczak, * Apartment, 0:00><1:54, 2001
From information architecture, memory theater and palace
Archives and databases have become an essential form of cultural organization and memory.
Alex Galloway and Radical Software Group, *Carnivore, 2001_Present, Carnivore is inspired by the software DCS 1000 nickname carnivore, which is used by the FBI to perform electronic wiretaps and search for certain “suspicious” keywords. This electronic wiretapping is done by means of so-called packet sniffing programs that monitor network traffic and ‘eavesdrop’ information exchanged. Tony Hawk’s Pro Skater 4
Big data analytics
? Nancy Patterson, *Stock Market Skirt, 1998
Lynn Hershman, *Synthia, 11:36>< 12:56, 2001
Warren Sack, Conversation Map, since 2001
Judith Donath and Fernanda Viégas, Chat Circles
Fernanda Viégas and Martin Wattenberg, Many Eyes, 2007
Beyond the book, Narrative environments
“While the world wide web may be the most advance actualization of Ted Nelson’s dream of hypermedia so far, his concepts of hypertext became the field of experimentation before there was a World Wide Web, particularly in the writing community.” CP
“As electronically linked, nonlinear text, hypertext both embodies and tests aspects of postmodern critical theory, particularly those concerning textuality, narrative, and the roles or functions of reader and writer.” CP
“The author creates a map of the text with alternate paths and various options; Readers assemble the story by choosing their routes through it (or even rewriting the text) and thus create an individual version of it.” CP
The author and reader become collaborators.
“Hypermedia application strive to mimic the brain’s ability to make associative references and use these references in order to access information.” CP
Masaki Fujihata, *Beyond Pages, 1995
John Maeda, former President of the Rhode Island School of Design
*Tap Type Write, 1998, *TED, 7:00><9:08
David Small and Tom White
*Stream of Consciousness: An Interactive Poetic Garden, 0:00><1:01 1997-1998
* Grammatron, 1997, aspires to be an electronic book of origins
Graham Harwood, Rehearsal of Memory, 1996
Jim Gasperini and Tennessee Rice Dixon, ScruTiny in the Great Round, 1996
Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Josh Carol, Robert Coover, Andrew McCain, ann Ben Sacha ‘Sascha’ Shine, * Screen, 2002– Present
“Game paradigms range from navigation and simulation to link narratives, the creation of 3D worlds and multiuser environments.”CP
“Games come in a variety of genres such as strategic ones, shooters, God games and action/adventure.”CP
“One essential characteristic that many of these games share with interactive, digital art is they are collaborative and participatory: players users often have to collaborate with each other in order to win the game.”CP
Skins, and interchangeable look and feel of the character.
Patches, self programmed extensions that actually modify the behavior of game world or character.
Role-playing is a crucial element that surfaces in both computer games and digital art.
First and third person perspective, or points of view.
Games and digital are both share a connection to the military industrial complex.
* The Intruder, 1999, <random> Players progressive the 10 different arcade game interfaces, which they have to play in order to win a piece of the narrative, Based on Jorge Luis Borges short story title The Intruder.
* Metapet, 2002, a resource management game based on the premise that biotech innovation and corporate creativity gave birth to a genetically engineered worker, a new class of virtual pet that the replaces the all too human worker.
* My Boyfriend Came Back From the War, 1996, (ICA)
Lynn Hershman Leeson
* Tillie, The Telerobotic Doll, 1995-199, (ICA)
* Q4U, 2002, 0:00><1:30, hack of Quake III Arena, with artist’s avatar
Anne-Marie Schleiner, Joan Leandre, and Brody Condon
* Velvet-Strike, 2006-11, 1:30><2:45, Counter Strike patch
Joseph de Lappe
* dead-in-iraq, 2006-11, 1:07><3:30, America’s Army online protest/memorial
Tactical media, activism, and hacktivism
Surveillance Camera Players
* Institute for Applied Autonomy, iSee, nd
* Josh On, They Rule, 2001
Antonio Muntadas, The File Room, 1994
Natalie Jeremijenko, Sniffer, 2002
etoy, Toywar, 1999
Vuk Cosic, Documenta X, nd
Mongrel, Uncomfortable Proximity, 2001
Open source and copyleft
Technologies of the future
Eduardo Kac, Genesis, 1999
Critical Art Ensemble, GenTerra, nd
Natalie Jeremijenko, OneTree, 2000
Redefining public space: Locative media and public interactives
Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution, 2002
Julian Bleecker, Scott Paterson and Marina Zurkow, PDPal, 2003
Julian Bleecker, WiFiArtCache, 2003
Fluxus, Situationist International, Psychogeography
Teri Rueb, * Core Sample, 2007
C5 Landscape Initiative, 2001
Usman Haque, Sky Ear, 2004
Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Amodal Suspension, 2003
Giselle Beiguelman, Sometimes Always, Sometime Never, 2005
Michelle Teran, Life: A User’s Manual, 2003
Krzysztof Wodiczko, Homeless Vehicles, 1988-9,
Marko Peljhan, Makrolab, 1994-present
Bureau of Inverse Technology, The Antiterror Line, 2003-4
Konrad Becker and Public Netbase with Pact System, System-77 CCR, 2004
Preemptive Media,Beatriz da Costa, Heidi Kumao, Jamie Schulte, and Brooke Singer ** Zapped to 8:25, 2005
Eric Paulos with Urban Atmospheres, Participatory Urbanism, 2006
Gabriel Zea, Andres Burbano, Camilo Martinez, and Alejandro Duque, BereBere, 2007
Camille Utterback, ** Abundance, ZERO1, 2007
Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Voice Tunnel, 2013
Marie Sester, * ACCESS, 2003
Aram Bartholl, * Dead Drops, 2010-Present
Augmenting the real: Augmented reality and mixed reality
John Craig Freeman, Orators, Rostrums, and Propaganda Stands, 2012
John Craig Freeman and Will Pappenheimer, SFMOMA AR, 2013
John Craig Freeman, Border Memorial: Frontera de los Muertos, 2012-Present
Blast Theory, * Can You See Me Now?, 2001-Present
Social media and the Web 2.0 era
Shift of emphasis from linking and exchange of media files to networking of people
Golan Levin with Kamal Nigam and Jonathan Feinberg, The Dumpster, 2006
Antonio Muntadas, On Translation: Social Networks, ZERO1 and CADRE 2006
Warren Sack, Agnostics: A Language Game, 2005
Angie Waller myfrienmies.com, 2007
Ben Grosser, Facebook Demetricator, 2012-Present
Joe Hamilton, Hyper Geography, 2012-Present
Scott Snibbe, Philip Glass REWORK_APP, 2012
Donato Mancini and Jeremy Owen Turner with Patrick ‘Flick’ Harrison, AVATARA, 2003
Eva and Franco Mattes (aka 0100101110101101.org), 13 Most Beautiful Avatars, 2006
John Craig Freeman and Will Pappenheimer, Virta-Flaneurazine, 2007
G+S (Simon Goldin and Jakob Senneby) Objects of Virtual Desire, 2005
Second Front, Spawn of the Surreal, 2007, Border Patrol with John Craig Freeman, 2007